Drug Safety Approach in Pharmacology

Drug Safety Approach in Pharmacology

Pharmacologists are key players in activities related to detection, prevention and in understanding possible drug related problems. A systems pharmacology modelling approach is recommended in ensuring drug safety. The system prevents issues of adverse drug reaction through proper monitoring of drugs as they are dispensed to hospitals and other health facilities (Bohomol, 2014). A pharmacist’s role in pharmacovigilance goes beyond dispensing drugs to creating an environment that has reduced medication errors. They are responsible for counselling patients of possible medication errors therefore ensuring drug safety and quality care of the patients. A strategy that looks into main causes of medication errors is important when developing a strategic approach in ensuring drug safety in the field of pharmacology. The systems modelling approach comprises of a series of steps that ensure that the patient gets the right medication without compromising their health (Scott, 2013). The first step in ensuring drug safety is by processing the right prescriptions as instructed by the physician. Second step is collecting and integrating patient’s drug history. Thirdly, the pharmacists monitors patient’s drug utilization. Lastly, the patients need to be advised on how to conduct issues related to polypharmacism. The suggested approach intends to reduce errors in medication and adverse effects related to improper medications. Advanced nurses are responsible for administering drugs and the model suggests that they will be able to deliver quality care to patients. Reduced incidents of medication errors implies that there is improved health safety and care from the nurses. The probability of giving the wrong medication by the nurse is thereby minimal hence an increased reliability of the nurse from the patients. References Bohomol, E. (2014). Medication errors: descriptive study of medication classes and high-alert medication. Escola Anna Nery – Revista De Enfermagem, 18(2), 2-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1414-8145.20140045 Scott, W. (2013). Introducing Pharmacology for Nursing and Healthcare. Nursing Standard, 27(48), 28-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ns2013.
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What is effective change management system? 2. How Project manager can understand change and the system that can manage it?

MSc. Portfolio Project Management Systems MOD002402 Referred Assignment 2 – July 2015 Project Change Rationale Changes to a project are inevitable, but the success of the project often comes down to how well the project manager dealt with these. An effective change management system is important to achieve this, so it is important that project managers understand change and the systems that can manage it. Task Critically discuss the effects of changes on a project and discuss the characteristics of an effective change management system. Marking criteria Critical discussion of the effects of change on the project 40% Quality of the discussion of a change management system 50% Quality of the paper 10% Submissions report format and must be typed A4, 12pt double-spaced, with an appropriate cover sheet bound in a plastic envelope/folder. Submissions should be in the order of 1500 words. Work must be fully referenced in accordance with the Harvard system where appropriate. Submission date: As notified on E vision

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Order NoEHUK5640Word1500Deadline2015-06-26Allocation Date2015-06-24 05:20:41Order TypeAssignmentAcademic LevelMasterSubjectProject ManagementOrder DeliveryTopic
Critical Discuss the effects of changes on a project and discuss the characteristics of an effective change management system.
Additional Requirement
1. What is effective change management system? 2. How Project manager can understand change and the system that can manage it? 3. Change to a project are inevitable? 4. Critically Discuss The effect of change on a project its effect of change, advantage, Disadvantage? 5. Discuss the characteristics of an effective change management system?

Formulate and discuss your personal definition of nursing, person, health, and environment.

Professional Development Assignment

n a 6- to 7-page paper in APA format describe your personal approach to professional nursing practice. Be sure to address the following:

  • Which philosophy/conceptual framework/theory/middle-range theory describes nursing in the way you think about it? Discuss how you could utilize the philosophy/conceptual framework/theory/middle-range theory to organize your thoughts for critical thinking and decision making in nursing practice.
  • Formulate and discuss your personal definition of nursing, person, health, and environment.
  • Discuss a minimum of two beliefs and/or values about nursing that guide your own practice.
  • Analyze your communication style using one of the tools presented in the course. In your paper, discuss the strengths and weaknesses associated with your style of communication and the impact on your ability to collaborate as part of an interdisciplinary team.
  • On a separate references page, cite all sources using APA format.

Submission Details:

  • Name your document SU_NSG3007_W4_Project_LastName_ FirstInitial.doc. Submit your
  • Submit your response in a 6- to 7-page paper to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

Cultural Aspects of Family

Class Notes:

Cultural Aspects of Family

Culture (Falicov, 1988)

• A set of shared world views and adaptive behaviors derived from simultaneous membership in a variety of contexts

o nationality & ethnicity o religious background o political leanings

o geographic setting, etc.

Broad definition of culture

• Ethnographic variables

• Nationality, ethnicity, language, religion

• Demographic variables

• Age, gender, place of residence

• Status variables

o social, economic, education

• Affiliation variables

• Formal & informal group memberships

Why the focus on culture in nursing?

“Clients have a right to have their sociocultural backgrounds understood in the same way that they expect their physical and psychological needs to be recognized and understood.” – Leininger (1995)

Lack of cultural insight can result in:

• Poor communication.

• Interpersonal tension.

• Inability to work effectively with others.

• Poor assessment of health problems & remedies.

Cultural dissimilarity can lead to incongruent:

• Goal expectations.

• Rapport.

• Communication styles.

• Client acceptance of ideas or recommendations.

Ethnicity (more focused than culture)

• A common ancestry

• Sense of “peoplehood”

• Group identity

• Shared social & cultural history

• Shared values & customs

2008 Texas statistics (estimates) ¹

• Black persons (11.9%)

• Non-Hispanic white persons (47.4%)

• Hispanic/Latino origin persons (36.5%)

• Persons reporting 2 or more races (1.3%)

• Asian persons (3.5%)

• American Indian/Native Alaskan persons (0.8%)

• Native Pacific Islander persons (0.1%)

• White persons (82.4%)


• Biological variation

• Physical characteristics

¹ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/48000.html

Remember, race can vary in terms of ethnicity & culture. There is also great variation within

ethnic groups.


• Labeling

• Generalizing

• Lack of recognition of individual differences

• To avoid stereotyping, remember “norms” are a clue to family background.

• These culturally derived patterns need to be verified with assessment for each family.

The “traditionalist fallacy” (Tripp-Reimer & Lauer, 1987)

• Clients may not want traditional beliefs and customs incorporated into their care if alternative approaches are acceptable.

• Ethnic clients may not wish to remain unassimilated.

Acculturation (two-way)

• Internalization of the dominant culture’s norms and values

• Dominant culture also influenced by exposure to the ethnic or subcultural groups within its boundaries.

Assimilation (one way)

• One culture absorbed into the dominant culture

• Minority culture may totally be extinguished.


• Participation in two cultural systems

• Requires two sets of behavior & ways of thinking

• An important adaptive strategy

Cultural relativism

• Perspective that cultures are neither inferior nor superior to one another

• No single scale for measuring the value of a culture

• Customs, beliefs, & practices must be judged or understood relative to context.

Cultural imposition

• Belief that one’s cultural beliefs and practices are superior and proper

• Force own values, beliefs, and practices on others

Focus areas for cultural assessment

• Family’s self-identified ethnic background

• Degree of acculturation

• Languages spoken, particularly in home

• Family’s religion or spiritual beliefs

• Ethnic group affiliation

• Dietary habits & dress

• Household décor

• Customs & beliefs about life transitions

• Beliefs about health & health problems

• Use of traditional healing methods

As you view the assigned movie for this week, apply the content from this lecture when you assess the movie family’s culture. Be sure to recognize how your assessment would affect your nursing interactions with this family. Are you more aware of cultural issues that you might not have noticed prior to this week’s discussion and readings?

Explain in detail how the person’s diet meets or does not meet the RDA for five or more micronutrients.

Part I The Diet Include the following in Part I: • Criterion 1: Determine if the person’s diet is deficient or in excess of CHO, PRO, and fat and explain why. • Criterion 2: Explain in detail how the person’s diet meets or does not meet the RDA for five or more micronutrients. Part II Disease and Nutrition Include the following in Part II: • Criterion 1: Explain how the person’s diet would affect the patient’s disease symptoms and progression. Provide a minimum of three examples of how specific foods affect the disease pathophysiology. Provide examples of foods the person should avoid, and those he/she should consume. • Criterion 2: Explain how food interacts with the medications this patient takes. What are the nutrient-related side effects of the medication? What are the nutrient restrictions and recommendations for the medications? o Example: Iron supplements cause constipation, so people are advised to increase fiber foods; however, if a person is taking fiber with iron, the fiber will reduce the absorption of the iron thus decreasing the effectiveness of the iron. Part III Patient Education Include the following in part III: • Criterion 1: Calculate the following for the patient: BMI, BMR, CHO, PRO, and fat needs and any other relevant calculations that will help you develop a nutritional plan for your patient. • Criterion 2: Develop an evidence-based nutritional education plan with three SMART goals for your patient. Provide specific nursing strategies and examples for the patient, and consider all aspects of the patient’s lifestyle.