Myocardial infarction occurs when there is a blockage in the coronary artery. This blockage causes death of some parts of the heart muscles as oxygen and blood are cut off from the areas. This condition is also known as a heart attack. Myocardial infarction is a medical emergency, symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pains, fatigue, dizziness and an increased heartbeat. Heart attacks can be treated through bypass surgery, heart rehabilitation medication, and lifestyle changes.
The condition is caused by various reasons, most of these causes are related to lifestyle. The major cause of myocardial infarction is hypertension also known as high blood pressure. According to Kiani, Hesabi & Arbabisarjou (2015), 25.5 percent of reported cases of patients suffering myocardial infarction have a history of hypertension. Myocardial infarction can also be caused by diabetes, high cholesterol in the blood and smoking. Old age also increases the chances of heart attacks. Most of these risk factors can be reduced by avoiding risky lifestyles such as smoking, heavy drinking, healthy eating, exercise, and regular medical checkups.
During myocardial infarction, cell injury is caused by necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. In the case of the 60-year-old Mr. Smith, the cell injury may have been due to Necrosis. Necrosis is caused by lack of oxygen in some tissues. These tissues end up dying of hypoxia. Mr. Smith had experienced frequent chest pains meaning that the cell injury occurred over a period. Oxygen supply to parts of his heart tissue was cut over a period causing the chest pain. By the time he collapsed, the cells on that part of the heart had died from lack of oxygen due to the blockage.
Cell injuries can either be reversible or irreversible, depending on the type of injury and the extent of the injury. Either reduced Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or cellular swelling can cause reversible cell injury. These cells can be regenerated using proper medication as well as lifestyle changes. Irreversible cell injuries are those that cannot be treated or regenerated. Irreversible cell injury can be caused by either Necrosis or apoptosis. Necrosis is a pathologic cell injury while apoptosis can either be pathologic or physiologic (Lakna, 2018).
During myocardial infarction, several changes may occur to the cell. These changes depend on the cause of the myocardial infarction and the intensity of the attack. The lack of oxygen in the cells causes Ischemia. Ischemia leads to excessive ionic as well as metabolic perturbation of the inflammatory cells in the affected area. Myocardial infarction also causes depression in the systolic function, therefore, hindering the blood flow to the heart (Heusch & Gersh, 2017).
Research shows that women are more prone to heart attacks because it takes longer for women to get the correct diagnosis of myocardial infarction hence they have a lower survivability rate. Myocardial infarction also occurs more among older people because they are more susceptible to lifestyle diseases. Diabetes and hypertension occur more among people over the age of forty.
THE ABOVE WAS MY DISCUSSION AND BELOW WAS THE PROFESSOR QUESTION
1)Can you elaborate on the effect or role on the ATP when injury such as this occurs?
2)What are the contraindications and relative contraindications for thrombolytic therapy?
3)What patient education would be important for this patient on discharge? What is the initial treatment for the patient with chest pain and why? What role does beta blocker play in the treatment of post MI?